Histologically, the parenchymal changes of bronchopulmonary sequestration can easily be. Congenital pulmonary airway malformation cpam is a developmental malformation of the lower respiratory tract. Bronchopulmonary sequestration is a benign, rare lung abnormality. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal intraabdominal extralobar. Bronchopulmonary sequestration bps is a rare developmental disorder in which part of the lung is disconnected from the main airway and receives aberrant arterial inflow from the aorta instead of from the pulmonary arteries. Intralobular sequestration can be considered a variant of els. Pathology of bronchopulmonary dysplasia jacqueline j. Ps is a spectrum of bronchopulmonary foregut anomalies, characterized overall as non. Bronchopulmonary sequestration bps is a congenital anomaly consisting of a nonfunctioning mass of lung tissue that lacks normal communication with the tracheobronchial tree and receives its blood supply from the systemic rather than the pulmonary circulation. Bronchopulmonary sequestration bps is most of the times simply referred to as pulmonary sequestration and is estimated to comprise 0. Ccam and bronchopulmonary sequestration bps are major categories of congenital pulmonary malformations. It is more common in infants with low birth weight lbw.
Noninvasive imaging of bronchopulmonary sequestration. Pathology of the lung excluding pulmonary tuberculosis. With bps, a piece of lung tissue develops without being connected to the airways, sometimes inside the lung and sometimes outside of it. A report to rein force the need to excise the hernia sac. Bronchopulmonary malformations refer to a spectrum of pulmonary developmental anomalies, including congenital pulmonary airway malformation cpam, previously known as congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation ccam, bronchopulmonary sequestration bps, hybrid lesion and congenital lung overinflation clo. They usually appear next to the lung extrapulmonary, aka extralobar sequestration or within one part of the lung intrapulmonary, aka intralobar sequestration. Pulmonary sequestration ucsf fetal treatment center. Although rare, it is the most common congenital lung lesion. The term implies a mass of lung tissue that has no function and lacks normal communication with the rest of the tracheobronchial tree.
A pulmonary sequestration, also known as bronchopulmonary sequestration, is a cystic piece of abnormal lung tissue that doesnt function like normal lung tissue. Bronchopulmonary sequestration bps is a solid lung lesion of nonfunctioning pulmonary tissue, a supernumerary lobe of the lung, which lacks connection to the tracheobronchial tree and receives its blood supply from an aberrant systemic feeding artery, originating commonly from the descending aorta. Ct appearance among various noninvasive imaging techniques, ct provides the best display of the parenchymal abnormalities in bronchopulmonary sequestration 24, 6. Relationship to intralobar pulmonary sequestration. Bronchopulmonary sequestration bps is a rare congenital malformation of the lower respiratory tract. Pulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital anomaly of a mass of lung tissue, which can have cystic changes and is a very important differential. Abstract bronchopulmonary sequestration was diagnosed in 17 patients ranging in age from new born to 64 years. Pulmonary sequestration was first described in 1861 by rektorzik as an embryonic mass of lung tissue that has no identifiable bronchial communication and receives its own blood supply from an anomalous systemic artery with an origin at either the thoracic or abdominal aorta. Pulmonary sequestration is a congenital anomaly of the primitive foregut. Intralobar pulmonary sequestration ips, right lower lobe, lobectomy, histopathology. Bronchopulmonary sequestration is an uncommon pulmonary disorder consisting of a segment of nonfunctioning lung parenchyma that has no communication with the tracheobronchial tree and receives its blood supply via an aberrant systemic artery 1,2,3,4.
This article discusses the embryology of these lesions with reference to possible common origins and the link between aetiology and radiological appearance. Pulmonary sequestration is a cystic or solid mass composed of nonfunctioning primitive tissue that does not communicate with the tracheobronchial tree and has anomalous systemic blood supply. Intrathoracic extralobar bronchopulmonary sequestration. Anesthetic considerations for a patient with intralobar. Bronchopulmonary sequestrations constitute approximately 0. Pulmonary sequestration and related congenital bronchopulmonary vascular malformations.
Sequestrations intralobar and extrapulmonary lobar author. Bronchopulmonary sequestration bps, sometimes referred to simply as pulmonary sequestration, is a rare congenital abnormality of the lower airway. Pulmonary sequestration a broad spectrum of bronchopulmonary foregut abnormalities george l. Lung nontumor cystic disease congenital anomalies bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pulmonary sequestration is a continuum of lung anomalies for which no single embryonic hypothesis is yet available. The postoperative course was uncomplicated, and the infant was discharged home on the second postoperative day. Nov 02, 2016 pulmonary sequestration represents approximately 6% of all congenital pulmonary malformations. The widespread use of antenatal ultrasound examination has resulted in an increase in the prenatal diagnosis of cpam 3,4. Pdf contemporary management of pulmonary sequestration. Usefulness of chest ct in the diagnosis of pulmonary. Pulmonary sequestrations may be defined as intralobular or extralobular, depending on their location. Pathology demonstrated extralobar bronchopulmonary sequestration with a separate foregut malformation most consistent with bronchogenic cyst fig.
A pulmonary sequestration also known as bronchopulmonary sequestration is a cystic piece of abnormal lung tissue that does not work like normal lung tissue. Intralobar sequestration accounts for 75% of pulmonary sequestrations. Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation and bronchopulmonary sequestration are congenital lung tumors that are classically described as having distinct embryology, pathology, and natural history. Pulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital present from birth malformation where nonfunctioning lung tissue is separated from the rest of the lung and supplied with blood from an unusual source, often an artery from systemic circulation. The authors conclude that ct can be helpful in the diagnosis and evaluation of bronchopulmonary sequestration. Thoracic ct showing a lesion on right lower lobe with. Sections of the mass showed lung parenchymal tissue comprising dilated. Bronchopulmonary sequestration was first described in 1946 by pryce as an abnormal artery arising from the aorta and supplying a bronchopulmonary mass or cyst that is dissociated from the normal bronchial tree.
Sagittal image a of the chest of a 24week fetus referred for a congenital pulmonaryairway malformation shows a homogeneoussolid lung lesion asterisk in the region of the left lower lobe. Extralobar sequestration is a rare congenital malformation of lung tissue, which. This sequestered tissue is therefore not connected to the normal bronchial airway architecture, and fails to function in, and contribute to, respiration of the organism. Green, col, all mc, usa abstract we believe the broad clinical, embryological, and radiological spectrum of pulmonary sequestration has not been adequately emphasized. Pulmonary sequestration is a congenital anomaly resulting in nonfunctioning lung tissue in either the extralobar or intralobar position. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the end result of lung injury in a developmentally immature host, so developmental similarities should exist between the animal model and the human disease. Bronchopulmonary foregut malformations bpfm are a heterogeneous group of pulmonary developmental anomalies that present at varying ages and with overlapping symptoms, signs and radiology. Bronchopulmonary sequestration is a rare malformation of the lower respiratory tract.
The alveoli that are present tend to not be mature enough to function normal. Pulmonary sequestration the annals of thoracic surgery. Some authors propose a greater male prevalence this may be the case for the. Ccam and bronchopulmonary sequestration are congenital lung masses that are traditionally described as having distinct embryology, pathology and natural history.
The term implies a mass of lung tissue that has no function and. The immature infant will breathe some level of oxygen, and even room air represents a hyperoxic exposure. The patient was doing well at the onemonth followup visit. Abstract broncho pulmonary sequestration is a rare anomaly which represents 0. Bronchopulmonary sequestration was first reported by huber in 1777, and the term sequestration was first introduced by pryce in 1946. Intralobar pulmonary sequestration masquerading as. The diagnosis of lung carcinoma could not be confirmed on the basis of the histopathology report.
Pulmonary sequestration causing congestive heart failure in infancy. Extralobar pulmonary sequestration with absence of pericardium and atrial septal defect in a woman zhenhuan tian1, yuncan zhou2 and hongsheng liu1 abstract background. Intralobar pulmonary sequestration, with special reference. Intrapulmonary sequestrations are the most common form, and 60% of these are found in the posterior basal segment of the left lower lobe. This study evaluated the accuracy of postnatal computed tomography ct imaging in the identification of congenital bronchopulmonary. Blood supply is usually by anomalous systemic artery with venous drainage into the azygos or hemizygos system the abnormal tissue may be located either above or below the. The abnormal tissue can be microcystic, containing many small cysts, or macrocystic, containing several large cysts. Classically identified due to recurrent infections or bronchiectasis. A pulmonary sequestration is a medical condition wherein a piece of tissue that ultimately develops into lung tissue is not attached to the pulmonary arterial blood supply, as is the case in normally developing lung. A 40yearold man presented with acute onset of left flank pain for 4 hours. A sequestrated lung presenting as lung abscess a rare case. They usually appear next to the lung or within one part of the lung.
Pulmonary sequestration an overview sciencedirect topics. Management of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation and. Jun 22, 2018 he was diagnosed with an infected intralobar bronchopulmonary sequestration and underwent videoassisted thoracoscopic wedge resection. It is a bronchopulmonary foregut malformation with estimated incidence of 0. Imaging in bronchopulmonary sequestration abbey 2009. Jan 30, 2019 intraabdominal extralobar pulmonary sequestration ieps is a rare type of pulmonary sequestration ps. Complication of mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy for treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome infants almost always bronchopulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital abnormality of the lower respiratory tract, seen mostly in children but often in adults. Pdf pulmonary sequestration ps is a rare congenital lung malformation presented as nonfunctioning lung mass, abnormally supplied by an.
Pulmonary sequestration, also called accessory lung, refers to the aberrant formation of segmental lung tissue that has no connection with the bronchial tree or pulmonary arteries. Bronchopulmonary sequestration bps is a mass of nonfunctioning lung tissue that does not communicate with the bronchioles, the passages that move air and in out of the lungs. It consists of a nonfunctioning mass of normal lung tissue that lacks normal communication with the tracheobronchial tree, and that receives its arterial blood supply from the systemic circulation. Ankur dave 2014, anesthetic considerations for a patient with intralobar pulmonary sequestration supplied by an aberrant aneurysmal branch. Bronchopulmonary sequestration was discovered in a 36yearold man being treated for pulmonary tuberculosis. It is comprised of nonfunctioning primitive lung tissue, having no communication with the tracheobronchial tree and contains a systemic arterial supply. Bronchopulmonary sequestration and pulmonary tuberculosis. Bronchopulmonary sequestration with massive pleural. Pulmonary sequestration also known as accessory lung is a cystic or solid mass of nonfunctioning primitive segmental lung tissue that does not communicate with the tracheobronchial tree and has anomalous systemic blood supply.
Metastatic oesophegeal adenocarcinoma to an intralobar bronchopulmonary sequestration. Bronchopulmonary sequestration presenting as a spontaneous. Bps belongs to the group of foregut malformations and is often accompanied by other defects. It is a bronchopulmonary foregut malformation bpfm. Observations in patients with intralobar sequestration with or without an aberrant systemic artery were made on a 3dimensional reconstruction of bronchoalveolar components and afferent and efferent vessels. Conventionally, bronchopulmonary sequestration has been categorized into intralobar and. Diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration by magnetic resonance imaging. Introduction bronchopulmonary sequestration bps or sequestration is a rare congenital abnormality of the lower respiratory tract. Left side congenital diaphragmatic hernia with sac and.
Sequestration is a rare congenital abnormality, representing 0. Bronchopulmonary sequestration childrens hospital colorado. The rate of hydrops with bronchopulmonary sequestration ranges from 7% 24 to 35% 26. Pulmonary sequestration radiology reference article. This arterial supply typically originates from the descending aorta and occasionally from the intercostal, celiac or splenic arteries, while venous drainage. Lung sequestration an overview sciencedirect topics. Pulmonary sequestration, also known as bronchopulmonary sequestration, accessory lung, or bronchopulmonary foregut malformation, represents 0. Histopathology examination confirmed a diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration. Aug 12, 2016 pulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital present from birth malformation where nonfunctioning lung tissue is separated from the rest of the lung and supplied with blood from an unusual source, often an artery from systemic circulation. Several methods of treatment have been described since the first publication.
Extralobar pulmonary sequestration with absence of. Intralobar pulmonary sequestration masquerading as lung. Characteristic manifestations are a a complex lesion containing solid or fluid components combined with emphysematous lung or b any basal lesion supplied by a systemic artery. Histologically, lung parenchyma in the sequestered segment displays evidence of lymphocytic inflammation and. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of intralobar sequestration ils. Pulmonary sequestration is a very rare anomaly in the pediatric age group, especially intralobar variety. Extralobar pulmonary sequestration elps are segmentsof lung tissue accessory lungs with a distinct pleural investment and complete anatomic and physiologic seprartion from the normal lung. Both forms derive their blood supply from the systemic circulation. Pulmonary sequestration associated with increased serum tumo. It consists of a nonfunctioning mass of lung tissue that lacks normal communication with the tracheobronchial tree and that receives its arterial blood supply from the systemic circulation 1. Bps belongs to the group of foregut malformations and is. Ccam is considered to represent a hamartomatous change in the tertiary bronchioles, and has an incidence of 1 in 25,000 to 35,000 live births.
Pryces traction theory is generally felt to be the most accurate explanation of this pathology. Large pulmonary sequestrations can present in the newborn with potentially fatal respiratory distress. Coalson, phd over the past three decades, advances in prenatal and neonatal intensive care have contributed to marked improvements in survival rates for extremely immature infants born during the canalicular phase of lung development at 24 to 26 weeks, a time when alveolar. The preoperative diagnosis is usually not a pulmonary sequestration in most of the patients. The most plausible theory is the formation of an accessory supernumerary lung bud below the normal lung bud. Bronchopulmonary sequestration bps is a rare malformation of the respiratory tract consisting of a mass of bronchopulmonary tissue that is separate from the tracheobronchial tree and fed by a separate systemic artery. Bronchopulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital abnormality of the lower respiratory tract, seen mostly in children but often in adults. The reduction in size or disappearance of an inutero bronchopulmonary sequestration is thought to be due to torsion andor clotting of the vascular pedicle, or decompression into the normally expanding lung 15,29.
Fetal pleuroamniotic shunting for bronchopulmonary. Extralobar pulmonary sequestration simulates posterior neurogenic. Bronchopulmonary sequestration bps is a rare malformation of the lung that occurs before a baby is born. It consists of a nonfunctioning mass of lung tissue that lacks normal communication with tracheobronchial tree and receives its arterial blood supply from systemic circulation. Pediatric pulmonary sequestration clinical presentation. Concurrent extrapulmonary bronchopulmonary sequestration and.676 1355 801 1147 1048 1312 271 755 463 294 700 566 693 204 93 1024 1011 243 137 1117 1226 1010 1215 67 1491 834 359 577 383 1442 388 1497 1368 927 862 956 115 295 276 578 446 411 1222 899 171 1357 768